Conventional dry-mix shotcrete (where water is added at the nozzle) or wet-mix shotcrete (where air is added at the nozzle to pneumatically convey the material to the receiving surface) has long been used for lining horizontal pipes, culverts, and vertical shafts.
This paper, however, describes a different tech-nology for spraying concrete onto such surfaces: the use of wet-mix centrifugal sprayed concrete (CSC). In-stead of adding water at the nozzle (as in dry-mix shotcrete), or air at the nozzle (as in wet-mix shotcrete), the concrete mix is pumped to a spinning head, which spins at between about 4,000rpm to 5,000rpm. The concrete is then centrifugally sprayed onto the receiving surface at high impacting velocity.
This paper describes the use of this CSC technology for lining horizontal pipes, culverts and other circular structures and vertical raise-bore shafts.
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