US shotcrete project company Shotcrete Technologies has released an article highlighting the different technological applications for applying concrete to industrial projects surfaces such as horizontal pipes, vertical shafts and culverts.
Conventional dry-mix shotcrete (where water is added at the nozzle) or wet-mix shotcrete (where air is added at the nozzle to pneumatically convey the material to the receiving surface) has long been used for lining horizontal pipes, culverts, and vertical shafts. This paper, however, describes a different technology for spraying concrete onto such surfaces: the use of wet-mix centrifugal sprayed concrete (CSC). Instead of adding water at the nozzle (as in dry-mix shotcrete), or air at the nozzle (as in wet-mix shotcrete), the concrete mix is pumped to a spinning head, which spins at between about 4000rpm to 5000rpm.
For more information, please download this free white paper here.