Adani Group has secured an environmental permit from the Queensland Government to build the $12.5bn Carmichael coal mine in the north of the Galilee Basin in Australia.
The Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (EHP) granted a final environmental authority (EA) for the mine project with about 140 conditions.
Nine of the conditions relate to the endangered black-throated finch as required by the Land Court of Queensland.
The latest announcement follows recommendation made by the Land Court to approve the Carmichael coal mine in December 2015.
EHP said in a statement: "The EA application was vigorously assessed by EHP and acted on recommendations made by the Land Court.
"EHP is confident the strict conditions placed on the EA, including extra requirements based on the Land Court's recommendations, will ensure this mine will not pose an unacceptable risk to the environment and any potential impacts will be closely monitored.
Environmental groups opposed the decision claiming that the project could threaten the World Heritage-listed Great Barrier Reef.
Greenpeace Australia Pacific reef campaigner Shani Tager said: "As Australia's largest coal mine, Carmichael will add to the global warming that is threatening the Reef.
"It will mean expanding Abbot Point port, dredging in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, and sending more ships through this delicate ecosystem.
"With the global coal market plummeting and countries like China, the US and even Vietnam phasing out new coal mines, the Queensland Government should be creating a transition plan for coal workers, not backing a dead-end project like Carmichael."
Greenpeace claimed that in case the 28,000ha mine starts complete production, it is expected to release 121 million tonnes of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere each year and ship 60 million tonnes of coal directly through the heart of the Reef.
Image: A green sea turtle on the Great Barrier Reef. Photo: courtesy of Nize.