The primary ground support system in underground operations without a rockburst hazard consists of weld mesh panels and friction bolts. With increased depth, mines and tunnels experience increasing levels of seismicity and the associated potential for rockburst damage. To cope with this hazard, specially designed rock bolts with better energy absorption and elongation capacity were introduced.
These bolts also better suit highly deformable ground than conventional bolts, however, surface support is required between the bolts and a common strategy at the moment is to use fi bre or weld mesh reinforced shotcrete. This tends to be expensive and slow to install, is stiff, and reacts poorly to dynamic loading.
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